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UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022

OR

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For The Transition Period FromTo

Commission file number: 001-41248

KNIGHTSCOPE, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware

46-2482575

(State of Other Jurisdiction of incorporation or Organization)

(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

1070 Terra Bella Avenue

Mountain View, CA

94043

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip code)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (650) 924-1025

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

Name of each exchange

Title of each class

Trading symbol(s)

on which registered

Class A Common Stock, $0.001 Par Value per Share

KSCP

Nasdaq Global Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant  (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.0405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).   Yes   No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Smaller reporting company 

Emerging growth company 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.

Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b).

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

As of June 30, 2022, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock held by non-affiliates based upon the closing price of such shares on The Nasdaq Global Market on such date was approximately $ 73 million. For purposes of the foregoing calculation, all directors and executive officers of the registrant and holders of more than 10% of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock are assumed to be affiliates of the registrant. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

As of March 23, 2023, there were 36,734,798 shares of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock outstanding.

Documents Incorporated by Reference

Part III incorporates certain information by reference from the registrant’s proxy statement for the 2023 annual meeting of stockholders to be filed no later than 120 days after the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended December 31, 2022.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

   

Page

PART I

Item 1. Business

4

Item 1A. Risk Factors

11

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

22

Item 2. Properties

22

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

22

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

22

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

22

Item 6. [Reserved]

23

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

23

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

32

Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

33

Item 9. Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

34

Item 9A. Controls and Procedures

34

Item 9B. Other Information

35

Item 9C. Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections

35

PART III

Item 10. Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

35

Item 11. Executive Compensation

35

Item 12. Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

35

Item 13. Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

35

Item 14. Principal Accountant Fees and Services

35

PART IV

Item 15. Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

36

Item 16. Form 10-K Summary

38

Signatures

38

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

F-1

2

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SPECIAL NOTE ABOUT FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K (this “Annual Report”), including “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. We intend such forward-looking statements to be covered by the safe harbor provisions for forward-looking statements contained in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”). All statements contained in this Annual Report other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding our future operating results and financial position, our business strategy and plans, market growth, and our objectives for future operations, are forward-looking statements. The words “believe,” “may,” “will,” “estimate,” “potential,” “continue,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “expect,” “could,” “would,” “project,” “plan,” “target,” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements.

Forward-looking statements contained in this Annual Report include, but are not limited to, statements about:

The success of our products and product candidates, which will require significant capital resources and years of development efforts;
Our limited number of deployments and the risk of limited market acceptance of our products;
Our ability to protect our intellectual property and to develop, maintain and enhance a strong brand;
Our limited operating history by which performance can be gauged;
Our ability to operate and collect digital information on behalf of our clients, which is dependent on the privacy laws of jurisdictions in which our Autonomous Security Robots (“ASR”) operate, as well as the corporate policies of our clients, which may limit our ability to fully deploy our technologies in various markets;
Our ability to raise capital, our rolling closes of equity infusions for our financings, and the availability of future financing;
Unpredictable events, such as the COVID-19 outbreak, and associated business disruptions could seriously harm our future revenues and financial condition, delay our operations, increase our costs and expenses, and impact our ability to raise capital; and
Our ability to manage our research, development, expansion, growth and operating expenses.

We have based these forward-looking statements on our current expectations and projections about future events and trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy, short-term and long-term business operations and objectives, and financial needs. These forward- looking statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, and assumptions and other factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those stated, including those described in the sections titled “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 and “Risk Factors” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report, as such factors may be updated in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, (“the SEC”). Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment. New risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements we may make. In light of these risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, the future events and trends discussed in this Annual Report may not occur and actual results could differ materially and adversely from those anticipated or implied in the forward-looking statements. In particular, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on economic conditions, emerging technology and the security industry in general and on our financial position and operating results in particular have been material, are changing rapidly, and cannot be predicted.

You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events. The events and circumstances reflected in the forward-looking statements may not be achieved or occur. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, performance, or achievements. Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report, and we undertake no obligation to update any of these forward-looking statements for any

3

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reason after the date of this Annual Report or to conform these statements to actual results or revised expectations, except as required by law.

In this Annual Report, the words “we,” “us,” “our,” “the Company” and “Knightscope” refer to Knightscope, Inc., unless the context requires otherwise.

PART I

Item 1. Business

Overview

Knightscope is a leading provider of Autonomous Security Robots (“ASRs”) and blue light emergency communication devices consisting of emergency blue light towers, blue light emergency phone (“E-Phone”) towers, fully integrated, solar-powered cellular emergency phone towers, and emergency call box systems (“Call Box”). Our technologies are Made in the USA and allow public safety professionals to more effectively deter, intervene, capture, and prosecute criminals. Our mission is to make the United States of America the safest country in the world by helping protect the people, places, and things where we live, work, study and visit.

To support this mission, we design, develop, manufacture, market, deploy, and support ASRs, autonomous charging stations, the proprietary Knightscope Security Operations Center (“KSOC”) software user interface, and blue light emergency communication devices.

We are a Delaware corporation, founded in April 2013. Our headquarters is located in Silicon Valley at 1070 Terra Bella Ave, Mountain View, CA 94043 and our telephone number is (650) 679-7626.

Strategy

The Knightscope management team intends to continue its focus on organic growth as well as add to its core solutions portfolio through future, opportunistic acquisitions based on a target’s revenue, free cash flow, technology, talent, and facilities.

On October 14, 2022, we completed the acquisition (the “CASE Acquisition”) of CASE Emergency Systems (“CASE”). CASE is a leader in blue light emergency phones and an innovator in next generation wireless emergency communications technology, providing Knightscope with a strategic entry into a nationwide market. The transaction provides a significant increase in infrastructure that is readily available for use in supporting the core business and brand strength to Knightscope with over 7,000 devices currently deployed across the United States, 9 production and logistics facilities spread throughout California, Texas and New York, and a seasoned team located across 4 states.

With a US installed base of over 7,000 devices, the CASE acquisition is positioned to enhance to Knightscope’s ASR sales strategy by providing direct access to,  numerous CASE clients, including major airports, top law enforcement agencies, universities, municipalities, rail, healthcare, parks, and the U.S. Federal Government. This direct client access will compliment and strengthen Knightscope’s growing autonomous security robot business with a comprehensive product portfolio and broadened physical footprint.

Our core technologies are suitable for most environments that require security patrol coverage and designed to be force multipliers that offer security teams improved situational awareness. ASRs conduct real-time on-site data collection and analysis in both indoor and outdoor spaces delivering alerts to security professionals through the KSOC. The KSOC enables clients with appropriate credentials and user permissions to access the data for investigative and evidence collection purposes.

Our blue light emergency communication devices consist of emergency blue light towers, E-Phone towers, fully integrated, solar-powered cellular emergency phone towers, and Call Boxes. Towered devices are tall, highly visible and recognizable apparatuses that provide emergency communications using cellular and satellite communications with solar power for additional safety in remote locations. E-Phones and Call Boxes offer a smaller, yet still highly visible, footprint than the stationary security towers, but with the same reliable communication capabilities.

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We sell our ASR and stationary multi-purpose security solutions under an annual subscription, Machine-as-a-Service (“MAAS”) business model, which includes the ASR lease as well as maintenance, service, support, data transfer, KSOC access, charging stations, and unlimited software, firmware and select hardware upgrades.

Our stationary blue light, E-Phone, and Call Box towers are sold as point-of-sale modular systems, including Knightscope’s exclusive, self-diagnostic, alarm monitoring system firmware that provides system owners daily email reports on the operational status of their system, a one-year parts warranty, and optional installation services. Modular upgrades are available for the blue light towers, such as public announcement speaker systems. Knightscope also offers an extended warranty on this series of stationary security towers.

Our current strategy for all products and services is to focus on United States sales and deployments for the foreseeable future before considering global expansion.

Industry background

In the United States, there are more than 8,000 private security firms and over 19,000 law enforcement agencies – a fragmented marketplace relying primarily on human beings for monitoring and patrol activities. We believe that our products offer a better economic proposition for our clients relative to a human guard or a mobile vehicle patrol unit operating 24/7, enabling the estimated 2.5 million law enforcement and security professionals to focus on strategic decision-making and enforcement.

Products

ASRs, Blue Light Towers, and Call Boxes

The K3 ASR and K5 ASR are designed to roam a geo-fenced area autonomously by utilizing numerous sensors and lasers, either on a random basis or based on a particular patrolling algorithm. They can successfully navigate around people, vehicles and objects in dynamic indoor or outdoor environments. To do this, the ASRs employ several autonomous motion and self-driving technologies, including lasers, ultrasonic sensors, inertial measurement unit (“IMU”), and wheel encoders integrated into a navigation software stack enabling autonomy. Each ASR can generate 1 to 2 terabytes of data per week and over 90 terabytes of data per year, which is accessible for review and analysis via the KSOC. Clients can recall, review, and save the data for analysis, forensic or archival purposes. Each ASR can autonomously charge and recharge on a 24-hour basis, 7 days per week without human intervention. Clients may also utilize the patrol scheduler feature on the KSOC to schedule periodic or regular patrols during certain times for alternative patrol routes.

The approximate dimensions of the K5 are as follows: Height: 5 feet, Width: 3 feet, Weight: 398 pounds.

The K5 is designed to be used primarily outdoors in such environments as open air malls, corporate campuses, hospitals, stadiums, retailers, warehouses, logistics facilities, college campuses, airports, train stations and multi-level parking structures. The K5’s advanced anomaly detection features include:

360-degree high-definition night and day video capture positioned at eye-level;
Live streaming and recorded high-definition video capabilities;
Automatic license plate recognition;
Parking meter feature, which assesses the top 10 vehicles and their “dwell time” in a particular location. If a vehicle is parked for more than 24 hours in the same location, a user can receive an alert or have the data flagged. The parking meter feature can also track the top 10 stationary vehicles in an area and accurate parking meter readout for each such vehicle;
People detection, which can alert a user in real-time of people detected on their premises, together with 360-degree recorded high-definition video. A user can use the timestamp of the recording to search through other data detected to assess and better understand other conditions in the area patrolled by the ASR;

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Thermal imaging, which allows for triggered alerts based on temperature. For example, assisting with alerts regarding increased risks of fires;
Two-way communication feature may be utilized for both public announcements and avoidance of human physical confrontations with dangerous individuals; and
Signal detection can be utilized as a rogue router detector for sensitive locations such as a data center.

The approximate dimensions of the K3 are as follows: Height: 4 feet, Width: 2 feet, Weight: 340 pounds.

The K3 is tailored for indoor usage, allowing it to autonomously navigate complex dynamic indoor environments such as an indoor mall, office building, manufacturing facility, hospital, stadium plaza, warehouse or school. It has the same suite of advanced anomaly detection capabilities as the K5, but the parking utilization, parking meter and license plate recognition features are turned off.

The ASRs include several communications features. The units can transfer data over both 4G LTE networks and Private LTE as well as future 5G capabilities. Each one has an available intercom that may be used for two-way communication with a security team. In addition, one or multiple units may be used as a live broadcast public address system or to deliver pre-recorded messages based on time, location, detection or randomly.

The ASRs run on rechargeable batteries. They are configured to patrol autonomously for approximately two to three hours, following which, without human intervention, the ASRs find and dock to a charging station, recharging for approximately 20 minutes or more before resuming patrol. The ASRs remain operational during the charging period, providing 24/7 uptime to clients.

The K1 Tower carries all the relevant features from the K3 and K5 but in a large stationary format. The K1 can be used indoors or outdoors and especially at ingress/egress points for both people and vehicles.

The approximate dimensions of the K1 are: Height: 6 feet, Width: 3 feet, Weight: 150 pounds.

The new K1 Hemisphere, soon to be commercially released, with its smaller profile, is a stationary unit designed for both indoor and outdoor use. The K1 Hemisphere provides up to 210 degree eye-level HD Recording, can be wall or pole mounted, and includes several features from the K3 and K5.

The dimensions of the K1 Hemisphere are: Diameter: 24 inches, Depth: 10 inches, Weight: 30 pounds.

The K1 Blue Light Tower emergency phone is for outdoor use and delivers completely wireless emergency phone operation, 24/7/365, even in harsh weather conditions with voice connectivity, broadcast warning capability, a flashing strobe, and night area illumination to assist responders in locating callers.

The approximate dimensions of the K1 Blue Light Tower are: Height: 12 feet, Width: less than one foot, Weight: 208 pounds.

The K1 Blue Light Emergency Phone is a compact, full-featured emergency calling solution for indoor and outdoor use. It is ideally suited for areas with limited space and offers one-touch connectivity and a high-visibility blue strobe in places tower designs may not fit. The E-Phone enhances public safety by providing robust, reliable, and clear voice-to-voice communication over a cellular network.

The dimensions of the K1 Blue Light Emergency Phone are: Height: 31.5 inches, Width: 10.5 inches, Weight: 52 pounds. The K1 Call Box is our smallest emergency call box system, delivering one-touch connection with a simple housing and interface. Call Boxes are typically mounted to a pole for outdoor use, and can be outfitted with solar charging capabilities. Like all Knightscope emergency communications products, it can provide a completely wireless solution for emergency phone calls, or it can be adapted to work with existing nearby wiring. Designed to work with hands-free ease, a handset, and TTY pad are additional options available on this device.

The dimensions of the K1 Call Box are: Height: 19.6 inches, Width: 15.3 inches, Weight: 47.4 pounds.

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KSOC

The KSOC is our intuitive, browser-based interface that, coupled with ASRs, provides security professionals with “smart mobile eyes and ears and voice – on the ground”. Once alerted of an abnormal event, such as a person spotted during a specific time in a particular location, authorized users can view the live stream of data in the KSOC from each of the ASRs in the user’s network, accessing it from a security operations center or a remote laptop.

Products in Development

The Company is in the process of developing the 5th generation of the K5, which is inprocess of being released, as well as the  1st generation K1 Hemisphere. In addition, the K7 multi-terrain ASR is under concept development. The K7 is expected to have the same features as the K5, but to employ four wheels for use on more rugged outdoor terrain such as dirt, sand, and gravel. We expect that the K7 could be utilized at airfields, power utilities, borders, solar farms, wind farms or oil or gas fields. While this technology builds on a great deal of our technology stack, we anticipate that its development will require significant additional time before it can be launched into full-scale production.

KNOC

The Company has built a custom set of tools that enables it to manage and monitor the network of ASRs operating in the field nationwide, which it refers to as the Knightscope Network Operations Center (“KNOC”). These tools allow our team to monitor the health of the ASRs down to the millisecond, with dozens of alerts related to critical indicators and statistics, including charging, software, navigation and temperatures. We also use the KNOC to execute over-the-air software upgrades, patches and other related items. The KNOC is staffed 24/7 by the Company in the U.S.

Additionally, the Company offers “Knightscope+” remote monitoring as an optional service that can be bundled into its MaaS subscriptions, primarily for clients that operate without a fully staffed 24/7 Security Operations Center (“SOC”).

Knightscope+

Knightscope+ is a virtual monitoring and response solution providing an alternative for client sites that do not have the resources to receive and respond to alerts generated by Knightscope’s ASRs. The service enables a full service solution for ASR clients, including but not limited to, alerts, broadcast messaging, and two-way communications. Knightscope+ operators have extensive training and experience related to surveillance and remote monitoring for greater situational awareness.

Clients

Knightscope’s products are designed to supplement the work of law enforcement and security professionals and are suitable for most environments that require patrol coverage. In the United States, there are more than 8,000 private security firms and over 19,000 law enforcement agencies – a fragmented marketplace that we believe offers numerous opportunities for disruption.

Knightscope’s ASRs, Blue Light Towers, and Call Boxes provide our clients with the ability to augment their existing security infrastructure, enabling human security resources to be more strategic in their approach to security. Our ASRs, Blue Light Tower and Call Box solutions have been deployed across a broad range of clients, including but not limited to casinos, corporations, law enforcement, county agencies, universities, and property management companies. In addition, Knightscope continues to partner with strategic resellers for our ASRs, Blue Light Towers, and Call Boxes, such as large security companies and value-added resellers offering safety equipment looking to augment the security solutions offered to their customers with advanced technology.

Sales and Marketing

The Company has been able to successfully sell new contracts through virtual private demonstrations and has embarked on an innovative “Robot Roadshow” beginning in the fourth quarter of 2021 and has now completed over 75 Pod landings across the country. The initiative entails a cross country tour of a physical “Pod” housing numerous ASRs providing a one-on-one hybrid offline/online selling technique with in-person robots and telepresence sales staff. Furthermore, we continue to be dedicated to achieving an Authority-to-

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Operate (“ATO”) from the Federal Risk and Authorization Management Program (“FedRamp”), targeted during 2023. The federal government adopted the Cloud First Policy, which requires all cloud service providers that hold federal data to be FedRamp certified. FedRamp compliance will enable federal agencies to do business with Knightscope.

We regularly advertise in the media through various online and offline channels.

Research and Development

Our research and development efforts focus primarily on the development of robust base technology as well as scaling efforts. In addition, we will continue to enhance our ASRs’, Blue Light Towers’, and Call Boxes’ capabilities and features, and the functionality of the KSOC software platform for use with the ASRs. In 2021, we commenced the FedRamp certification process, which is expected to continue throughout 2023 and will require ongoing support thereafter for the foreseeable future.

Intellectual Property

The Company holds ten patents collectively covering its ASRs, the security data analysis and display features of the KSOC and its parking monitor feature. The Company also has pending patent applications relating to its ASRs, KSOC, parking monitor feature, behavioral autonomous technology and the ASRs’ behavioral autonomous technology relating to visible weapon detection. The Company owns a trademark registration for its name “Knightscope” in the U.S. On August 10, 2021, the Company filed two trademark applications (Serial Numbers: 90875695 for LONG KNIGHTSCOPE. SHORT THE CRIMINALS and 90875697 for $KSCP). The Company relies and expects to continue to rely on a combination of confidentiality agreements with its employees, consultants, and third parties with whom it has relationships, as well as trademark, copyright, patent, trade secret, and domain name protection laws, to protect its proprietary rights.

Manufacturing and Suppliers

Knightscope assembles its ASRs at its Mountain View, California headquarters and Blue Light Towers and Call Boxes in Downey and Irvine, California from components manufactured by more than 100 suppliers. The Company’s top three suppliers, measured by spending, are Fast Radius, based in Illinois, E and M Electric and Machinery Inc., based in Healdsburg, California, and Quigley’s Auto Body, based in Lake Forest, California. The Company is not highly dependent on any one supplier and believes it can source components from other suppliers and has done so when necessary. Current lead times for certain components and systems are consistent with pre-pandemic lead times for a portion of the bill-of-material but for a variety of varying items, supply chain issues continue. With the onset of supply chain constraints, the Company has experienced significant delays on a few key components and increased requirements to pre-pay for certain raw material or larger minimum order requirements by suppliers. The Company has taken certain countermeasures including, but not limited to, adjusting production schedules, renegotiating supply agreements, re-designing systems, using multiple worldwide brokers, and purchasing larger quantities of key parts in advance. Despite our efforts to minimize the impact of supply chain limitations on our operations during 2022, we expect to continue to experience some delays in our ability to build and deploy ASRs, Blue Light Towers, and Call Boxes to our clients during 2023 due to global supply chain constraints, including, but not limited to, the impact of the continuing conflict in the Ukraine.

In order optimize our ability to serve our clients, we have partnered with one of our strategic investors, Konica Minolta, Inc., among others, to train their technicians to service, maintain and support our machines-in-network and assist us with our nationwide scaling efforts. As our fleet of deployed ASRs grows, the Company has engaged additional third-party service providers with broad geographic footprints to support our clients. K1 Blue Light Ephone Towers and Emergency Call Boxes are serviced by our in-house team of service technicians or by our value added resellers of those product lines.

Competition

At the moment, we are not aware of any direct competitors for our ASR products in the advanced physical security technology space that have viable commercial products in the United States, addressing both outdoor and indoor applications, at the same scale as Knightscope. It is a common misconception among some people outside of the security industry that we compete against closed-circuit television (CCTV) providers. They are not, in fact, competitive products because cameras do not provide a physical presence, are typically used for forensics after an event, and do not offer a client the plethora of capabilities available in an ASR/KSOC combination.

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We believe that having these two types of systems working together provide a more holistic approach to promoting safety and reducing crime. While traditional human guards provide a closer comparator or competitor in some cases, we believe that utilizing our “Software, Hardware, Humans” approach is much more effective.

We are aware of a start-up, SMP Robotics Services Corp. (“SMP”), which produces an outdoor autonomous security platform that it markets through third-party distributors which has primarily been focused on international markets but appears to be attempting re-entry to the U.S. market. We had previously listed Gamma 2 Robotics and SHARP Electronics as potential competitors in this space. However, according to industry sources, we understand that both Gamma 2 Robotics and SHARP Electronics have ceased operations in the security robot space after failed attempts to enter the market. Cobalt Robotics, a company exclusively focused on indoor applications, may be considered a partial competitor. Additionally, Turing AI has recently begun offering an indoor-only robot and Robotic Assistance Devices, a subsidiary of Artificial Intelligence Technology Solutions, while beginning autonomous robot offerings, has continued to grow its stationary fixed device offerings, similar to other fixed solutions, such as those offered by Verkada.

We compete indirectly with private physical security firms that provide clients with security personnel and other security services. Our ASRs offer clients a significant cost reduction relative to the cost of human security guards. In addition, ASRs offer significantly more capabilities, such as license plate detection, data gathering, thermal imaging and people detection that are delivered consistently, on a 24-hour, 7 day per week basis, without regular human intervention. In certain cases, our technology complements and improves the operations of traditional security firms.

Competitors for our K1 Blue Light E-Phone Towers and Emergency Call Boxes include Code Blue Corporation, Talk-a-Phone, GaiTronics (Hubbell), and Rath. To differentiate its towers and call boxes from the competition, Knightscope has focused on providing its clients with standalone solutions that include the use of solar power, requiring that no power infrastructure be in place in order for the products to work. In addition, our E-Phones are primarily cellular, requiring no communications infrastructure. As a result, the K1 Blue Light E-Phone Towers and Emergency Call Boxes are easy to install and maintain.

Government Regulation

Our operations are subject to numerous governmental laws and regulations, including those governing antitrust and competition, the environment, collection, recycling, treatment and disposal of covered electronic products and components.

In addition, a number of data protection laws impact, or may impact, the manner in which we collect, process and transfer personal data. U.S. laws that have been applied to protect user privacy (including laws regarding unfair and deceptive practices) may be subject to evolving interpretations or applications in light of privacy developments. Compliance with enhanced data protection laws requires additional resources and efforts, and noncompliance with personal data protection regulations could result in increased regulatory enforcement and significant monetary fines and costs.

Backlog and Seasonality

As of March 19, 2023, we had orders representing approximately $5.2 million in sales outstanding, all of which related to services that we expect to deliver within one year. Of the total sales outstanding as of March 19, 2023, $2.7 million represent MaaS agreements for ASR deployments and $2.5 million relates to orders for Blue Light E-phone towers and Call Boxes. As of December 31, 2022 and 2021, we had orders representing approximately $4.7 million and $1.1 million in sales outstanding, respectively.

We have not experienced any significant effects relating to seasonality for our products and services.

Human Capital

As of December 31, 2022, the Company had 111 full-time employees and one part-time employee working primarily out of our combined headquarters and production facility in Mountain View, California and production facilities in Downey and Irvine, California. We are not a party to any collective bargaining agreements.

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On January 6, 2023, the Company announced a cost-reduction plan intended to reduce operating costs, improve operating margins, streamline its operations and right-size its combined workforce and continue advancing the Company’s ongoing commitment to profitable growth. The cost-reduction plan included a reduction of the Company’s workforce by approximately 20%. As of March 30, 2023, the Company had 92 full-time employees and one part-time employee.

The Company believes that our future growth and success will depend in part on our ability to attract and retain highly-skilled employees. The executive management team is responsible for developing and executing the Company’s human capital strategy. The human capital strategy includes the attraction, acquisition, engagement, and development of the Company’s employees as resources allow. The CEO regularly updates the Company’s board of directors on key areas of our human capital strategy, including the following:

Diversity and Inclusion: The Company’s management team and board of directors believes in the benefits workforce diversity can provide. Innovation is critical for any technology company – and we believe that it benefits by the creative thinking that happens when people with different perspectives and backgrounds come together. We believe diverse teams can better relate to the many and varied needs of our Clients. We promote a culture where individual differences are valued which also allows us to attract the very best talent further encouraging our people to reach their full potential.

Further, we are committed to making all benefit and employment-related decisions in compliance with established equal employment opportunity statutes and without regard to religion, national origin, age, gender, race, color, ancestry, sexual orientation, disability, marital status, citizenship, pregnancy, medical condition or any other protected class status, as defined by local, state or federal laws.

We believe strongly in building a workforce that is diverse and that can build strong working relationships with our Clients. We support an inclusive culture and motivate our workforce to be themselves while at work. We are committed to providing our employees with a positive and safe work environment that is free of discrimination, harassment, and workplace violence. We encourage our employees to embrace different ideas, strengths, interests, and cultural backgrounds. Professional development and inclusion are important to us.

Health and Safety: Health, safety, and the well-being of our employees is one of our top priorities. We strive to achieve world-class safety levels on an annual basis. Our safety culture focuses on reducing workplace injuries and is supported by effective communication and reporting of workplace injuries. To protect our employees in facilities in which our teams operate, we have employed preventative measures to ensure the health and safety of our employees. We ensure our preventative measures are in compliance with the most recent local governmental regulations and requirements. These preventative measures not only apply to our physical operations, but also to health and safety measures implemented to address the health pandemics.

Available Information

We file reports and other information with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”), which are accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act are available, free of charge, on our website at ir.knightscope.com. We make these reports available through our website as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such reports with, or furnish such reports to, the SEC. The information provided on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of, or incorporated into, this Annual Report on Form 10-K. You may also access this information, free of charge, at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

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Item 1A. Risk Factors

Selected Risks Related to the Business and the Global Economy

We have not yet generated any profits or significant revenues.

The Company was formed in 2013 and made its first pilot sales in 2015. The Company began listing on the Nasdaq Stock Market in January 2022.  Accordingly, the Company has a limited history upon which to evaluate its performance and future prospects. Our current and proposed operations are subject to all the business risks associated with new enterprises, including, but not limited to, likely fluctuations in operating results as the Company makes significant investments in research, development and product opportunities, integrates new products under development or acquired in acquisitions, and reacts to developments in its market, such as purchasing patterns of clients and any new competitors into the market. The Company has incurred net losses and generated limited revenues since inception. Changes in our relationships with these parties or changes in the economic environments in which they operate could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flowsSee Note 1 to the Company’s audited consolidated financial statements contained in this Annual Report.

Any evaluation of our business and our prospects must be considered in light of our limited operating history and the risks and uncertainties encountered by companies in our stage of development. Further, our industry is characterized by rapid technological change, changing client needs, evolving industry standards and frequent introduction of new products and services. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in rapidly changing industries. If we do not address these risks successfully, our operating results will be harmed.

Investors should evaluate an investment in us in light of the uncertainties encountered by developing companies in a competitive environment.  We cannot assure you that we will be profitable in the next several years or generate sufficient revenues to meet our debt servicing and payment obligations.

The report of our independent registered public accounting firm expresses substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern, and we may not be able to continue to operate the business if we are not successful in securing additional funding.

The report of our independent registered public accounting firm on our consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, which is included in this Annual Report, includes an explanatory paragraph indicating that there is substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern due to our recurring losses from operations and significant accumulated deficit. The inclusion of a going concern explanatory paragraph by our independent registered public accounting firm may materially adversely affect our share price, our ability to secure additional financing and otherwise execute our strategy.

The Company has a history of losses and has projected operating losses and negative cash flows for the foreseeable future, and we are currently dependent on additional fundraising in order to sustain our ongoing operations. Although our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”), contemplating that we will continue to operate as a going concern, we cannot assure you that the Company will be successful in acquiring additional funding at levels sufficient to fund future operations. If the Company is unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to it, the Company may have to significantly reduce its operations or delay, scale back or discontinue the development of additional products and services, seek alternative financing arrangements, declare bankruptcy or terminate its operations entirely.

The Company expects to experience future losses as it implements its business strategy and will need to generate significant revenues to achieve profitability, which may not occur.

We have incurred net losses since our inception, and we expect to continue to incur net losses in the future. To date, we have funded our operations from the sale of equity and debt securities in private transactions and in the capital markets, and by means of credit facilities and other financing arrangements. We expect to continue to incur significant operating expenses as we implement our business strategy, which include development, sales and marketing, and general and administrative expenses and, as a result, we expect to incur additional losses and continued negative cash flow from operations for the foreseeable future. We will need to generate significant revenues to achieve profitability. We cannot assure you that we will ever generate sufficient revenues to achieve profitability. If we do achieve profitability in some future period, we cannot assure you that we can sustain profitability on a quarterly or annual basis in the future. If

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our revenues grow more slowly than we anticipate or if our operating expenses exceed our expectations or cannot be adjusted accordingly, our business, operating results and financial condition will be materially and adversely affected.

The Company is subject to potential fluctuations in operating results due to its sales cycle.

Our sales cycles can be long and unpredictable, and our sales efforts require considerable time and expense. As a result, our sales are difficult to predict and may vary substantially from quarter to quarter, which may cause our operating results to fluctuate significantly. We spend a substantial amount of time, effort and money in our sales efforts without any assurance that our efforts will produce any revenue and the timing of our revenue is difficult to predict. Our sales efforts involve educating our clients about the use and benefit of our new products and technology, including their technical capabilities and potential cost savings to the clients. Clients typically undertake a significant evaluation process that has in the past resulted in a lengthy sales cycle. In addition, product purchases are frequently subject to budget constraints, regulatory and administrative approvals, and other delays. If sales expected from a specific client for a particular quarter are not realized in that quarter or at all, our business, operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

The Company’s future operating results are difficult to predict and may be affected by a number of factors, many of which are outside of the Company’s control.

The market for advanced physical security technology is relatively new and unproven and is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. The industry is characterized by rapid change, new and complex technology and intense competition. Our ability to gain market share depends upon our ability to satisfy client demands, enhance existing products and services and develop and introduce new products and services. Our ability to gain market share also depends on a number of factors beyond our control, including the perceived value associated with our products and services, the public’s perception of the use of robots to perform tasks traditionally reserved for humans, and our clients’ acceptance that security services can be performed more efficiently and cost-effectively through the use of our products and ancillary services. If any of these factors turns against us, our future operating results could be materially and adversely affected.

Our financial results will fluctuate in the future, which makes them difficult to predict.

Our financial results have fluctuated in the past and will fluctuate in the future. Additionally, we have a limited operating history with the current scale of our business, which makes it difficult to forecast future results. As a result, you should not rely upon the Company’s past financial results as indicators of future performance. You should take into account the risks and uncertainties frequently encountered by rapidly growing companies in evolving markets. Our financial results in any given quarter can be influenced by numerous factors, many of which we are unable to predict or are outside of our control, including:

Our ability to maintain and grow our client base;
Downturns or financial instability in the business of our customers and partners;
Development and introduction of new products by us or our competitors;
Adverse changes affecting our suppliers and other third-party service providers, and any disruption in the supply of materials necessary for our business;
Increases in marketing, sales, service and other operating expenses that we may incur to grow and expand our operations and to remain competitive;
Our ability to achieve profitable gross margins and operating margins;
Periodic litigation and related legal proceedings, which could result in unexpected expenditures of time and resources; and
Changes in global business or macroeconomic conditions including regulatory changes.

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The occurrence of any of unanticipated obstacles will hinder the execution of our business plan and adversely affect our operating results.

Changes in global economic conditions, including, but not limited to, those driven by inflation and interest rates, may adversely affect customer spending and the financial health of our customers and others with whom we do business, which may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations, and cash resources.

Uncertainty about current and future global economic conditions may cause our customers and partners to cancel agreements with us. Our financial success is sensitive to changes in general economic conditions, higher interest rates, higher energy costs, increased labor costs, inflation, increases in commodity prices, higher levels of unemployment, higher consumer debt levels, higher tax rates and other changes in tax laws, public health issues like the COVID-19 pandemic, or other economic factors, certain of which effects, including cost inflation, we experienced in 2022 and currently expect to continue to experience in 2023.

Global inflation, elevated interest rates, and global industry-wide logistics challenges have impacted, and we expect will continue to impact, our business.  If our suppliers or other parties in our supply chain experience diminished liquidity, and as a result are unable to fulfill their obligations to us, we may be unable to provide our customers with our products in a timely manner, resulting in lost sales opportunities or a deterioration in our customer relationships.  If we are unable to mitigate the impact of supply chain constraints and inflationary pressure through price increases or other measures, our results of operations and financial condition could be negatively impacted.

Similarly, the ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine has created volatility in the global capital markets and is expected to continue to have further global economic consequences, including disruptions of the global supply chain and energy markets. Any such continued volatility and disruptions may adversely affect our business or the third parties on whom we rely. If the equity and credit markets deteriorate, including as a result of political unrest or war, it may make any necessary debt or equity financing more difficult to obtain in a timely manner or on favorable terms, more costly or more dilutive. Increased inflation rates have already, and may continue to, adversely affect us by increasing our costs, including labor and employee benefit costs. In addition, higher inflation and macro turmoil and uncertainty could also adversely affect our customers, which could reduce demand for our products.

Adverse developments affecting the financial services industry, including events or concerns involving liquidity, defaults or non-performance by financial institutions, could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Actual events involving limited liquidity, defaults, non-performance or other adverse developments that affect financial institutions or the financial services industry generally, or concerns or rumors about any events of these kinds or other similar risks, have in the past and may in the future adversely affect our liquidity. For example, on March 10, 2023, the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) announced that Silicon Valley Bank had been closed by the California Department of Financial Protection and Innovation. At that time, all of our cash and cash equivalents were held at Silicon Valley Bank and our access to such funds was limited until the United States Department of the Treasury announced in a joint statement with the Federal Reserve and FDIC that depositors of Silicon Valley Bank will have access to all of their money starting March 13, 2023. While we have regained access to our funds at Silicon Valley Bank and have subsequently moved it to another bank, we continue to evaluate our banking relationships as our access to funding sources and other credit arrangements in amounts adequate to finance or capitalize our current and projected future business operations could be significantly impaired by events such as liquidity constraints or failures, disruptions or instability in the financial services industry or financial markets, or concerns or negative expectations about the prospects for companies in the financial services industry. These factors may also adversely affect our ability to access our cash and cash equivalents at affected financial institutions.

Investor concerns regarding the U.S. or international financial systems could result in less favorable commercial financing terms, including higher interest rates or costs and tighter financial and operating covenants, or systemic limitations on access to credit and liquidity sources, thereby making it more difficult for us or our customers to acquire financing on terms favorable to us, or at all.  Any decline in available funding or access to our cash and liquidity resources could, among other things, adversely impact our ability to meet our operating expenses, financial obligations or fulfill our other obligations, result in breaches of our contractual obligations or result in violations of federal or state wage and hour laws. Any of these impacts, or any other impacts resulting from the factors described above or other related or similar factors not described above, could have material adverse impacts on our liquidity and our business, financial condition or results of operations.

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Any further deterioration in the macroeconomic economy or financial services industry could lead to losses or defaults by our customers or suppliers, which in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our current and/or projected business operations and results of operations and financial condition. Any customer or supplier bankruptcy or insolvency, or the failure of any customer to make payments when due, or any breach or default by a customer or supplier, or the loss of any significant supplier relationships, could result in material losses to the Company and may have a material adverse impact on our business.

We have a limited number of deployments, and limited market acceptance of our products could harm our business.

The market for advanced physical security technology is relatively new and unproven and is subject to a number of risks and uncertainties. The numbers, types and locations of ASRs in service vary depending on the duration of each client contract, client demand and similar factors. As a result, the numbers, types and locations of ASRs in service that are currently deployed may not be representative of client contracts and client demand in the future. In order to grow our business and extend our market position, we will need to place into service more ASRs, expand our service offerings, including by developing a new generation of our K5 ASR, and expand our presence nationwide. Our ability to expand the market for our products depends on a number of factors, including the cost, performance and perceived value associated with our products and services. Furthermore, the public’s perception of the use of robots to perform certain tasks traditionally reserved for humans may negatively affect demand for our products and services. Ultimately, our success will depend largely on our clients’ acceptance that security services can be performed more efficiently and cost effectively through the use of our ASRs and ancillary services.

We cannot assure you that we will effectively manage our growth.

Our employee headcount and the scope and complexity of our business have increased significantly since we were first formed, and we expect it will continue as we grow over the long term. The growth and expansion of our business and products create significant challenges for our management, operational, and financial resources, including managing multiple relationships and interactions with users, distributors, vendors, and other third parties. As the Company continues to grow, our information technology systems, internal management processes, internal controls and procedures and production processes may not be adequate to support our operations. To ensure success, we must continue to improve our operational, financial, and management processes and systems and to effectively expand, train, and manage our employee base. As we continue to grow, and implement more complex organizational and management structures, we may find it increasingly difficult to maintain the benefits of our corporate culture, including our current team’s efficiency and expertise, which could negatively affect our business performance.

Our costs may grow more quickly than our revenues, harming our business and profitability.

Providing our products is costly because of our research and development expenses, production costs, operating costs and need for employees with specialized skills. We expect our expenses to continue to increase in the future as we expand our product offerings, expand production capabilities and hire additional employees. Historically, our costs have increased each year due to these factors and the Company expects to continue to incur increasing costs, in particular for working capital to purchase inventory, marketing and product deployments as well as costs of client support in the field. Our expenses may be greater than we anticipate, which would have a negative impact on our financial position, assets and ability to invest further in the growth and expansion of the business. In addition, expansion across the country will require increased marketing, sales, promotion and other operating expenses. Further, as additional competitors enter our market, we expect an increased pressure on production costs and margins.

Our debt arrangements, such as the Convertible Notes (as defined below), impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us, which may prevent us from capitalizing on business opportunities. A breach of any of those restrictive covenants may cause us to be in default under our debt arrangements, and our lenders could foreclose on our assets.

We issued convertible notes in October 2022 (the “Convertible Notes”), and the Convertible Notes require us to maintain certain financial covenants, including maintaining available cash of at least $1.5 million. In addition, the Convertible Notes require that we maintain our listing on Nasdaq and contain other restrictive covenants that limit our ability to engage in specified types of transactions which limit our ability to, among other things:

Incur certain additional indebtedness;

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Pay dividends on, repurchase or make distributions in respect our capital stock;
Make certain investments;
Sell or dispose of certain assets;
Grant liens on our assets; and
Consolidate, merge, sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our assets.

A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under the Convertible Notes. Upon the occurrence of an event of default, the lender could elect to declare all amounts outstanding thereunder to be immediately due and payable. We have pledged all of our assets, inclusive of our intellectual property, as collateral under the Convertible Notes. If the lender accelerates the repayment, we may not have sufficient assets to repay them and we could experience a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations, including bankruptcy. In the event of a bankruptcy, collection proceedings, or other reorganization of our debt, our creditors would have priority over our stockholders, and the value of your shares could be adversely affected.

The loss of one or more of our key personnel, or our failure to attract and retain other highly qualified personnel in the future, could harm our business.

We currently depend on the continued services and performance of key members of its management team, in particular, our founders, William Santana Li and Stacy Dean Stephens. If we cannot call upon them or other key management personnel for any reason, our operations and development could be harmed. The Company has not yet developed a succession plan nor does it carry any key man life insurance on any members of its management team. Furthermore, as the Company grows, it will be required to hire and attract additional qualified professionals such as accounting, legal, finance, production, service and engineering experts. The Company may not be able to locate or attract qualified individuals for such positions, which will affect the Company’s ability to grow and expand its business.

If we are unable to protect our intellectual property, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and our business may be adversely affected.

The Company relies and expects to continue to rely on a combination of confidentiality agreements with its employees, consultants, and third parties with whom it has relationships, as well as trademark, copyright, patent, trade secret, and domain name protection laws, to protect its proprietary rights. The Company has filed in the United States various applications for protection of certain aspects of its intellectual property, and currently holds ten patents. However, third parties may knowingly or unknowingly infringe our proprietary rights, third parties may challenge proprietary rights held by us, and pending and future trademark and patent applications may not be approved. In addition, effective intellectual property protection may not be available in every country in which we intend to operate in the future. In any or all of these cases, we may be required to expend significant time and expense in order to prevent infringement or to enforce our rights. Although we have taken measures to protect our proprietary rights, we cannot assure you that others will not offer products or concepts that are substantially similar to our products and compete with our business. In addition, we may not have the financial or human resources to devote to adequately defending our intellectual property rights. If the protection of our proprietary rights is inadequate to prevent unauthorized use or appropriation by third parties, the value of our brand and other intangible assets may be diminished and competitors may be able to more effectively mimic our service and methods of operations. Any of these events could have an adverse effect on our business and financial results.

We may face additional competition.

We are aware of a number of other companies that are developing physical security technology in the United States and abroad that may potentially compete with our technology and services. These or new competitors may have more resources than us or may be better capitalized, which may give them a significant advantage, for example, in offering better pricing than the Company, surviving an economic downturn or in reaching profitability. We cannot assure you that we will be able to compete successfully against existing or emerging competitors. Additionally, existing private security firms may also compete on price by lowering their operating costs, developing new business models or providing other incentives.

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Our ability to operate and collect digital information on behalf of our clients is dependent on the privacy laws of jurisdictions in which our ASRs operate, as well as the corporate policies of our clients, which may limit our ability to fully deploy our technologies in various markets.

Our ASRs collect, store and may analyze certain types of personal or identifying information regarding individuals that interact with the ASRs. The regulatory framework for privacy and security issues is rapidly evolving worldwide and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. Federal and state government bodies and agencies have in the past adopted, and may in the future adopt, laws and regulations affecting data privacy, which in turn affect the breadth and type of features that we can offer to our clients. In addition, our clients have separate internal policies, procedures and controls regarding privacy and data security with which we may be required to comply. Because the interpretation and application of many privacy and data protection laws are uncertain, it is possible that these laws may be interpreted or applied in a manner that is inconsistent with our current data management practices or the features of our products. If so, in addition to the possibility of fines, lawsuits and other claims and penalties, we could be required to fundamentally change our business activities and practices or modify our products, which could have an adverse effect on our business. Additionally, we may become a target of information-focused or data collection attacks and any inability to adequately address privacy and security concerns, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable privacy and data security laws, regulations, and policies, could result in additional cost and liability to us, damage our reputation, inhibit sales, and adversely affect our business. Furthermore, the costs of compliance with, and other burdens imposed by, the laws, regulations, and policies that are applicable to the businesses of our clients may limit the use and adoption of, and reduce the overall demand for, our products. Privacy and data security concerns, whether valid or not valid, may inhibit market adoption of our products, particularly in certain industries and foreign countries. If we are not able to adjust to changing laws, regulations, our business may be harmed.

We have limited experience in operating our ASRs in a variety of environments and increased interactions may lead to collisions, possible liability and negative publicity.

Our ASRs operate autonomously in environments, such as shopping malls, parking lots and stadiums, that are surrounded by various moving and stationary physical obstacles and by humans and vehicles. Such environments are prone to collisions, unintended interactions and various other incidents, regardless of our technology. Therefore, there is a possibility that our ASRs may be involved in a collision with any number of such obstacles. Our ASRs contain a number of advanced sensors that are designed to effectively prevent any such incidents and are intended to stop any motion at the detection of intervening objects. Nonetheless, real-life environments, especially those in crowded areas, are unpredictable and situations may arise in which the ASRs may not perform as intended. Infrequent, but highly publicized incidents of autonomous vehicle and human interactions have focused consumer attention on the safety of such systems. We continuously test the ASRs in a number of unpredictable environments and continue to improve each model’s obstacle-sensing and crash-prevention technology. Furthermore, the maximum speed of the ASRs typically does not exceed 3 mph, which is not different from normal human walking pace and is unlikely to lead to any significant damage. However, we cannot assure you that a collision, with property or with humans, will not occur, which could damage the ASR, or lead to personal injury or property damage and may subject us to lawsuits. Moreover, any such incident, even without damage, may lead to adverse publicity for us. Such lawsuits or adverse publicity would negatively affect our brand and harm our business, prospects, financial condition and operating results.

Our failure to implement and maintain effective internal control over financial reporting may result in material misstatements in our consolidated financial statements, which could in the future require us to restate consolidated financial statements, cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information and could have an adverse effect on our ability to fundraise.

In connection with the audit of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2021, we and our independent registered public accounting firm identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting related to certain corporate finance and accounting oversight functions, specifically related to the need for technical accounting and SEC expertise with respect to accounting for the preferred stock warrant liability, convertible notes and other equity accounting items. The material weakness was largely due to a lack of sufficient accounting and finance resources throughout 2021. Management implemented remediation steps to address the material weakness by hiring a full-time, in-house accounting team, including a chief financial officer with U.S. GAAP and SEC Commission reporting expertise, and augmenting its internal and external accounting team with additional technical accounting professionals. As of December 31, 2022, the Company’s management believes the identified material weakness has been remediated. Material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting may be identified in the future. Any failure to maintain existing or implement required new or improved controls, or any difficulties we encounter in their implementation, could result in additional material weaknesses, cause us to fail to meet our periodic reporting obligations or result in material misstatements in our

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consolidated financial statements. If a material weakness were to exist, it could result in errors in our consolidated financial statements that could result in a restatement of consolidated financial statements and cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. If we are unable to effectively remediate material weaknesses in a timely manner, investors could lose confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, which could have an adverse effect on our ability to sell our securities and to conduct future fundraising.

The private security industry is undergoing structural changes in technology and services.

The private security industry is undergoing structural changes, consolidation, changing client needs, evolving industry standards and introduction of new products and services. We have encountered and will continue to encounter risks and difficulties frequently experienced by growing companies in such industries. If we do not address these risks successfully, our business will be harmed. Our ability to gain market share depends upon our ability to satisfy client requirements, enhance existing products and develop and introduce new products. Further, we expect the intensity of competition to increase in the future. Increased competitiveness may result in reductions in the prices of our products and services, lower-than-expected gross margins or loss of market share, any of which would harm our business.

The Company may fail in its efforts to secure a material amount of business from the U.S. Federal Government.

The Company continues to be dedicated to achieving an Authority-to-Operate (“ATO”) from the “FedRamp”. The federal government adopted the Cloud First Policy, which requires all cloud service providers that hold federal data to be FedRamp certified. FedRamp compliance will enable federal agencies to do business with Knightscope. The Company may not achieve ATO during 2023, may never achieve an ATO, or, if achieved, may never garner new business contracts from the effort.

The Company is controlled by certain of its officers and early-stage investors (who hold super voting securities), and they may make decisions that may not reflect the interests of other stockholders.

The holders of our Class B Common Stock and Super Voting Preferred Stock currently control a significant majority of the voting rights of the Company. Holders of our Class B Common Stock (including Mr. Li, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, and Stacy Dean Stephens, our EVP and Chief Client Officer) and the holders of the Super Voting Preferred Stock (collectively, the “Super Voting Stock”), are entitled to ten votes for each such share held at meetings of stockholders, subject to the provisions of the Delaware law and relevant provisions of the Company’s certificate of incorporation. Holders of Class A Common Stock are entitled to one vote for each share held. Holders of Class B Common Stock may convert their shares of Class B Common Stock into shares of Class A Common Stock on a 1:1 basis.

As of February 24, 2023, the holders of the Super Voting Stock beneficially held approximately 79.32% of the Company’s total voting rights, with Mr. Li and Mr. Stephens beneficially holding (including by irrevocable voting proxy) approximately 37.8% and 15.5%, respectively, of the Company’s voting rights (approximately 53.3% collectively). As a result, holders of the Super Voting Stock (including certain officers of the Company) will be able to exert a significant degree of influence over our management and affairs and control over matters requiring stockholder approval, including the election of our directors and approval of significant corporate transactions. As a result of their control of greater than 50% of the voting rights of the Company, Messrs. Li and Stephens can collectively take actions requiring stockholder approval with the vote of other stockholders. This concentration of voting power may also delay or prevent a change in control of us and might affect the market price of our securities. The interests of these stockholders may not always coincide with the interests of other securityholders of the Company.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an adverse impact, and may have a future material adverse impact, on our business, operations, liquidity, financial condition, and results of operations.

Since 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to disruptions and volatility in the global capital markets, which has increased our cost of capital and adversely affected our ability to access the capital markets. In addition, the COVID-19 pandemic has, among other things, caused global macroeconomic uncertainty, disrupted customer spending and supply chains, and contributed to various global shipping delays. Global supply chain disruptions during the year ended December 31, 2022 negatively impacted our business and could continue to do so in 2023 and beyond, which could have a material adverse effect on the business, financial condition, and results of operations.

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The Company is dependent on the global supply chain and has experienced supply chain constraints, as well as increased costs on components and shipping resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and the continuing conflict in Ukraine.

The Company experienced supply chain constraints resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, which slowed down production and negatively impacted the timing of deploying ASRs to our clients. In addition, we experienced and continue to experience supply chain delays as a result of the impact of the conflict in the Ukraine. These supply constraints include, but are not limited to, semiconductor shortages as well as shortages of certain commodities. Extended lead times on certain parts as well as a lack of immediate availability may delay our ability to deploy ASRs, and consequently, may delay our ability to recognize revenue. In addition, the Company has also faced increased costs of components and freight resulting from COVID-19. Further, current or future governmental policies may increase the risk of inflation, which could further increase the costs of raw materials and components for our business. Similarly, if costs of goods continue to increase, our suppliers may seek price increases from us. If we are unable to mitigate the impact of supply chain constraints and inflationary pressure through price increases or other measures, our results of operations and financial condition could be negatively impacted. Even if we are able to raise the prices of our products, consumers might react negatively to such price increases, which could have a material adverse effect on, among other things, our brand, reputation, and sales. If our competitors substantially lower their prices, we may lose customers and mark down prices. Our profitability may be impacted by lower prices, which may negatively impact gross margins. Even though we are working to alleviate supply chain constraints through various measures, we are unable to predict the impact of these constraints on the timing of revenue and operating costs of our business in the near future. Raw material supply shortages and supply chain constraints, including cost inflation, have impacted and could continue to negatively impact our ability to meet increased demand, which in turn could impact our net sales revenues and market share. The increased cost of components and freight as well as ongoing delays in receiving raw materials and components for production are likely to have an impact on sales and profitability in 2023 and beyond.

Risks related to Ownership of our Class A Common Stock

We may not be able to comply with all applicable listing requirements or standards of The Nasdaq Global Market, and Nasdaq could delist our Class A Common Stock.

Our Class A Common Stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “KSCP.” In order to maintain that listing, we must satisfy minimum financial and other continued listing requirements, including maintaining a minimum bid price and a minimum market value. The inability to comply with applicable listing requirements or standards of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC (“Nasdaq”) could result in the delisting of our Class A Common Stock, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and could cause the value of our Class A Common Stock to decline.

On March 29, 2023, the Company received written notice (the “Notice”) from Nasdaq indicating that the Company is no longer in compliance with the minimum Market Value of Listed Securities (“MVLS”) of $50,000,000 required for continued listing on The Nasdaq Global Market (the “MVLS Requirement”). In accordance with Nasdaq rules, the Company has a period of 180 calendar days, or until September 25, 2023 (the “Compliance Date”), to regain compliance with the MVLS Requirement. If, at any time before the Compliance Date, the market value of the Company’s listed securities closes at $50,000,000 or more for a minimum of 10 consecutive business days, the Staff will provide written notification to the Company that it has regained compliance with the MVLS Requirement. If the Company does not regain compliance with the MVLS Requirement by the Compliance Date, the Company will receive written notification that its securities are subject to delisting. At that time, the Company may appeal the delisting determination to a Nasdaq Listing Qualifications Panel. There can be no assurance that such appeal would be successful and Nasdaq would grant the Company’s request for continued listing. If the Company does not regain compliance with the MVLS Requirement by the Compliance Date, the Company may also be able to transfer the listing of its Class A Common Stock to the Nasdaq Capital Market, provided that the Company then meets the applicable requirements for continued listing on the Nasdaq Capital Market.

Furthermore, the receipt of the Notice, or a future delisting of our Class A Common Stock, provides certain rights to the holders of our Convertible Notes, which could have a material adverse affect on the Company.

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In the event that our Class A Common Stock is not eligible for quotation on another market or exchange, trading of our Class A Common Stock could be conducted in the over-the-counter market or on an electronic bulletin board established for unlisted securities such as the Pink Sheets or the OTC Bulletin Board. In such event, it could become more difficult to dispose of, or obtain accurate price quotations for, our Class A Common Stock, and the price of our Class A Common Stock could decline further. In addition, it may be difficult for us to raise additional capital if we are not listed on a major exchange.

The Company may need to seek additional funds in the future.

The Company projects operating losses and negative cash flows for the foreseeable future. We may require additional funds to maintain our operations and respond to business challenges and opportunities, including the need to develop new products or enhance our existing products, enhance our operating infrastructure or acquire complementary businesses and technologies. Accordingly, we may need to engage in subsequent equity or debt financings to secure additional funds. If we raise additional funds through further issuances of equity or convertible debt securities, our existing stockholders could suffer significant dilution, and any new equity securities we issue could have rights, preferences and privileges superior to those of holders of our existing capital stock. Any debt financing secured by us in the future could involve additional restrictive covenants relating to our capital raising activities and other financial and operational matters, which may make it more difficult for us to obtain additional capital and to pursue business opportunities. Such financing could also require us to pledge assets as security for borrowings. If we were to leverage our business by incurring significant debt, we may be required to devote a substantial portion of our cash flow to service that indebtedness. This could require us to modify our business plan, for example, by delaying the expansion of our business. If we are unable to obtain adequate financing or financing on terms satisfactory to us, the Company may have to significantly reduce its operations or delay, scale back or discontinue the development of one or more of its platforms, seek alternative financing arrangements, declare bankruptcy or terminate its operations entirely.

Our stock price may be volatile.

The market price of our Class A Common Stock may be thinly traded, highly volatile and could fluctuate widely in price in response to various factors, many of which are beyond our control, including the following:

Changes to the physical security and technology industries;
Current and future competition;
Additions or departures of key personnel;
Additional sales of our Class A Common Stock and other securities;
Our ability to execute our business plan;
Operating results that fall below expectations;
Loss of any strategic relationship;
Continued access to working capital funds;
Economic and other external factors; and
The threat of terrorism, geopolitical tensions, and general disruptions in the global economy, including the impacts of military action, financial and economic sanctions, and increasing geopolitical tensions related to the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine.

In addition, the securities markets have from time to time experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that are unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies. These market fluctuations may also materially and adversely affect the market price of our Class A Common Stock. As a result, you may be unable to resell your shares at a desired price.

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We have not paid cash dividends in the past and do not expect to pay dividends in the future. Any return on investment may be limited to the value of our Class A Common Stock.

We have never paid cash dividends on our equity securities and do not anticipate doing so in the foreseeable future. The payment of any dividends on our Class A Common Stock will depend on earnings, financial condition and other business and economic factors affecting us at such time as our board of directors may consider relevant. If we do not pay dividends, our Class A Common Stock may be less valuable because a return on your investment will only occur if our stock price appreciates.

If financial securities industry analysts do not publish research reports on us, or publish unfavorable reports on us, then the market price and market trading volume of our Class A Common Stock could be negatively affected.

Any trading market for our Class A Common Stock will be influenced in part by any research reports that financial securities industry analysts publish about us or our business. We do not currently have and may not obtain any future research coverage by securities industry analysts. In the event we are covered by analysts, and one or more of such analysts downgrade our securities, or otherwise reports on us unfavorably, or discontinues coverage on us, the market price and market trading volume of our Class A Common Stock could be negatively affected.

Future issuances of debt securities, which would rank senior to our common equity in bankruptcy or liquidation, or future issuances of preferred stock, which would rank senior to our common equity for the purposes of dividends and liquidating distributions, may adversely affect the level of return you may be able to achieve from an investment in our common stock.

In the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources by offering debt securities. Upon bankruptcy or liquidation, holders of our debt securities, and lenders with respect to other borrowings we may make, would receive distributions of our available assets prior to any distributions being made to holders of our common equity. Moreover, if we issue additional preferred stock, the holders of such preferred stock, together with current holders of Preferred Stock who choose not to convert their shares to common equity, could be entitled to preferences over holders of Class A Common Stock in respect of the payment of dividends and the payment of liquidating distributions. Because our decision to issue debt or preferred securities in any future offering, or to borrow money from lenders, will depend in part on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of any such future offerings or borrowings.

Because of our status as an emerging growth company, you will not be able to depend on any attestation from our independent registered public accounting firm as to our internal control over financial reporting for the foreseeable future.

Our independent registered public accounting firm will not be required to attest to the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act until the latter part of the year following our first annual report required to be filed with the Commission or the date we are no longer an “emerging growth company” as defined in the JOBS Act. Accordingly, you may not be able to depend on any attestation concerning our internal control over financial reporting from our independent registered public accounting firm for the foreseeable future.

We have incurred and will continue to incur increased costs as a result of operating as a listed public company and our management will be required to devote substantial time to new compliance initiatives and corporate governance practices.

As a listed public company, and particularly in the future when we are no longer an “emerging growth company,” we will incur significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we have not incurred in the past. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the listing requirements of Nasdaq and other applicable securities rules and regulations impose various requirements on public companies. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to compliance with these requirements. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect that these rules and regulations may make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain directors’ and officers’ liability insurance, which could make it more difficult for us to attract and retain qualified members of our board of directors. We cannot predict or estimate the amount of additional costs we will incur as a listed public company or the timing of such costs.

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Substantial future sales or issuances of our securities, or the perception in the public markets that these sales may occur, may depress our stock price.

Sales of substantial amounts of our Class A Common Stock in the public market, the conversion of the Convertible Notes and subsequent sale of the underlying securities, or the perception that these sales or conversion could occur, could adversely affect the price of our Class A Common Stock and could impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional shares. Such shares of Class A Common Stock are generally freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act. Furthermore, holders of our preferred stock have the option to convert their shares of preferred stock into shares of our common equity, which may be subquentely sold in the market.  In addition, the applicable conversion rates for the Convertible Notes and certain of our preferred stock and/or warrants, may be adjusted based on future issuances of our Class A Common Stock, which may lead to the issuance of additional shares of Class A Common Stock.  For example, the holder of our Convertible Notes may, among other things, convert such Convertible Notes into shares of Class A Common Stock at a 15% discount to a value of our Class A Common Stock. The issuance and sale of substantial amounts of shares of our Class A Common Stock, or announcement that such issuances and sales may occur, could adversely affect the market price of our Class A Common Stock. If there are more shares of Class A Common Stock offered for sale than buyers are willing to purchase, then the market price of our Class A Common Stock may decline to a market price at which buyers are willing to purchase the offered shares of Class A Common Stock and sellers remain willing to sell the shares.

In the future, we may also issue additional securities if we need to raise capital, which could constitute a material portion of our then-outstanding shares of common stock.

We may be unable to successfully integrate the businesses and personnel of acquired companies and businesses, and may not realize the anticipated synergies and benefits of such acquisitions.

From time to time, we may complete acquisitions of companies and certain businesses of companies, and we may not realize the expected benefits from such acquisitions because of integration difficulties or other challenges. For example, in October 2022, we completed the CASE Acquisition.

The success of any acquisition will depend, in part, on our ability to realize all or some of the anticipated synergies and other benefits from integrating the acquired businesses with our existing business. The integration process may be complex, costly and time-consuming. The potential difficulties we may face in integrating the operations of our acquisitions include, among others:

Failure to implement our business plan for the combined businesses;
Unexpected losses of key employees, customers or suppliers of acquired companies and businesses;
Unanticipated issues in conforming our acquired companies’ and businesses’ standards, processes, procedures and internal controls with our operations;
Coordinating new product and process development;
Increasing the scope, geographic diversity and complexity of our operations;
Diversion of management’s attention from other business concerns;
Adverse effects on our or acquired companies’ and businesses’ existing business relationships;
Unanticipated changes in applicable laws and regulations;
Unanticipated expenses and liabilities; and
Other difficulties in the assimilation of acquired companies and businesses operations, technologies, products and systems.

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We may not be able to maintain or increase the levels of revenue, earnings or operating efficiency that any acquired company and business and us had historically achieved or might achieve separately. In addition, we may not accomplish the integration of any acquired company and business smoothly, successfully or within the anticipated costs or timeframe. If we experience difficulties with the integration process or if the business of any acquired company or business deteriorates, the anticipated cost savings, growth opportunities and other synergies of any acquired company and business may not be realized fully or at all, or may take longer to realize than expected. If any of the above risks occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows may be materially and adversely impacted, we may fail to meet the expectations of investors or analysts, and our stock price may decline as a result.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

None.

Item 2. Properties

Knightscope currently leases its premises and owns no significant plant or equipment. The Company’s approximately 15,000 square foot facility in Mountain View, California serves as its headquarters, where it designs, engineers, tests, manufactures and supports all of its ASR technologies. The Company wholly owns its ASRs and typically builds in batches based on client demand, refraining where possible in stocking inventory or finished products. The Blue Light EPhone Towers and Emergency Call Boxes are designed and assembled in the Company’s two 6,540 and 4,254 square foot facilities located in Irvine and Downey, California, respectively.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings

From time to time, the Company may be subject to pending legal proceedings and regulatory actions in the ordinary course of business. The Company is not presently a party to any litigation that it believes to be material and the Company is not aware of any pending or threatened litigation against the Company that it believes could have a material adverse effect on its business, operating results, financial condition or cash flows.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures

Not applicable.

PART II

Item 5. Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Market Information and Holders

Our Class A Common Stock is listed and traded on the Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “KSCP.” As of February 24, 2023, we had (i) 14,499 holders of record of our Class A Common Stock and (ii) 12 holders of our Class B Common Stock.

Dividends

To date, we have not paid any cash dividends on our Class A Common Stock. We expect to retain future earnings for use in operating and expanding our business, and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the reasonably foreseeable future.

Future declarations of dividends will depend on, among other things, our results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and capital requirements, and on such other factors as the board of directors may in its discretion consider relevant and in the best long-term interest of stockholders.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities

None.

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Item 6. [Reserved]

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

Introduction

The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included herein as Item 8. This discussion contains forward-looking statements. Refer to “Forward-Looking Statements” on page 3 and “Risk Factors” beginning on page 10, for a discussion of the uncertainties, risks and assumptions associated with these statements. The historical results presented below are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for any future period.

A discussion of our comparison between 2022 and 2021 is presented below. A discussion of the changes in our results of operations between the years ended December 31, 2021 and, 2020 has been omitted from this Annual Report on Form 10-K but may be found in Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021, filed with the SEC on March 31, 2022, which is available free of charge on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov and our corporate website (www.knightscope.com).

Overview

Knightscope is a leading provider of autonomous security robots. Our technologies are Made in the USA and allow public safety professionals to more effectively deter, intervene, capture, and prosecute criminals. Our mission is to make the United States of America the safest country in the world by helping to protect the people, places, and things where we live, work, study and visit.

To support this mission, we design, develop, manufacture, market, deploy and support Autonomous Security Robots (“ASRs”), autonomous charging stations, the proprietary Knightscope Security Operations Center (“KSOC”) software user interface, and blue light emergency communication devices.

Our core technologies are suitable for most environments that require security patrol coverage and designed to be force multipliers that offer security teams improved situational awareness. ASRs conduct real-time on-site data collection and analysis in both indoor and outdoor spaces delivering alerts to security professionals through the KSOC. The KSOC enables clients with appropriate credentials and user permissions to access the data for investigative and evidence collection purposes.

Our blue light emergency communication devices consist of emergency blue light towers, blue light emergency phone (“E-Phone”) towers, fully integrated, solar-powered cellular emergency phone towers, and emergency call box systems (“Call Box”). Towered devices are tall, highly visible and recognizable apparatuses that provide emergency communications using cellular and satellite communications with solar power for additional safety in remote locations. E-Phones and Call Boxes offering a smaller, yet still highly visible, footprint than the stationary security towers, but with the same reliable communication capabilities.

We sell our ASR and stationary multi-purpose security solutions under an annual subscription, Machine-as-a-Service business model, which includes the ASR rental as well as maintenance, service, support, data transfer, KSOC access, charging stations, and unlimited software, firmware and select hardware upgrades.

Our stationary blue light, E-Phone, and Call Box towers are sold as point-of-sale modular systems, including Knightscope’s exclusive, self-diagnostic, alarm monitoring system firmware that provides system owners daily email reports on the operational status of their system, a one-year parts warranty, and optional installation services. Modular upgrades are available for the blue light towers, such as public announcement speaker systems. Knightscope also offers an extended warranty on this series of stationary security towers.

Our current strategy for all products and services is to focus solely on United States sales and deployments for the foreseeable future before considering global expansion.

Recent Developments

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On October 14, 2022, the Company completed the acquisition of Case Emergency Systems (“CASE”) pursuant to an asset purchase agreement entered into on October 10, 2022 (the “CASE Acquisition”). The Company purchased and assumed substantially all the assets and certain specified liabilities of CASE’s emergency call box and communications business. The purchase price paid at the closing of the CASE Acquisition consisted of (i) $6.16 million in cash, subject to a working capital and indebtedness adjustment, less an indemnification holdback amount of $672,000 and (ii) $560,000 in the form of an unsecured, non-negotiable promissory note.

On October 10, 2022, the Company entered into a securities purchase agreement with an accredited investor, pursuant to which the Company issued and sold to the investor (i) senior secured convertible notes in an aggregate principal amount of $6.075 million (the “Notes”), at an initial conversion price of $5.00 per share of the Company’s Class A Common Stock, and (ii) warrants to purchase up to 1,138,446 shares of Class A Common Stock with an initial exercise price of $3.25 per share. On December 30, 2022, the Company and the holder of the Notes entered into an agreement and waiver, pursuant to which, among other things, the conversion price under the Note was reduced to equal the Alternate Conversion Price (as defined in the Notes) then in effect (but with 85% replacing 80% in such definition of Alternate Conversion Price, as applicable).

On January 6, 2023, following the completion of the CASE Acquisition, the Company announced a cost-reduction plan intended to reduce operating costs, improve operating margins, streamline its operations and right-size its combined workforce and continue advancing the Company’s ongoing commitment to profitable growth. The cost-reduction plan included a reduction of the Company’s workforce by approximately 20%.

In February 2023, the Company commenced an At The Market offering program with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, acting as sales agent, under which we may offer and sell shares of our Class A Common Stock from time to time through the sales agent having an aggregate offering price of up to $20,000,000.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates

The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations is based upon our accompanying consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP. The preparation of these consolidated financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that can have significant impact on the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, revenues and expenses, and related disclosure of assets and liabilities at the date of our consolidated financial statements. For the Company, these estimates include, but are not limited to: deriving the useful lives of ASRs, determination of the cost of ASRs, assessing assets for impairment, and the valuation of convertible preferred stock warrants and stock options. Actual results could differ from those estimates. We base our estimates, assumptions and judgments on historical experience and various other factors that we believe to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions. On a regular basis, we evaluate our estimates, assumptions and judgments and make changes accordingly.

We believe the following critical accounting estimates affect our more significant judgments and estimates used in preparing our consolidated financial statements. Please see Note 1 to our consolidated financial statements, which are included in Item 8 “Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” of this Annual Report. There have been no material changes made to the critical accounting estimates during the periods presented in the consolidated financial statements.

Business Combinations

We account for our business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting, which requires, among other things, allocation of the fair value of purchase consideration to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed at their estimated fair values on the acquisition date. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. When determining the fair value of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, we make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to intangible assets. Our estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates. Once the purchase accounting is finalized, any subsequent adjustments are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations. Acquisition costs, such as legal and consulting fees, are expensed as incurred.

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Acquired Intangible Assets

When we acquire a business, a portion of the purchase price is typically allocated to identifiable intangible assets, such as trademarks, acquired technology and customer relationships. Fair value of these assets is determined primarily using the income approach, which requires us to project future cash flows and apply an appropriate discount rate. We amortize intangible assets with finite lives over their expected useful lives. Our estimates are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain and unpredictable. Assumptions may be incomplete or inaccurate, and unanticipated events and circumstances may occur. Incorrect estimates could result in future impairment charges, and those charges could be material to our results of operations.

Inventory

Inventory, principally purchased components, is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using an average cost, which approximates actual cost on a first-in, first-out basis. Inventory in excess of salable amounts and inventory which is considered obsolete based upon changes in existing technology is written off. At the point of loss recognition, a new lower cost basis for that inventory is established and subsequent changes in facts and circumstances do not result in the restoration or increase in the new cost basis.

Goodwill

Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the fair value of the net tangible and identifiable intangible assets acquired in a business combination. Goodwill is not subject to amortization but will be reviewed for impairment on an annual basis or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value of goodwill may not be recoverable.

Autonomous Security Robots, net (“ASRs”)

ASRs consist of materials, ASRs in progress and finished ASRs. ASRs in progress and finished ASRs include materials, labor and other direct and indirect costs used in their production. Finished ASRs are valued using a discrete bill of materials, which includes an allocation of labor and direct overhead based on assembly hours. Depreciation expense on ASRs is recorded using the straight-line method over their estimated expected lives, which currently ranges from 3 to 5 years. Depreciation expense of finished ASRs included in research and development expense amounted to $66 thousand and $82 thousand, depreciation expense of finished ASRs included in sales and marketing expense amounted to $46 thousand and $71 thousand, and depreciation expense included in cost of revenue, net amounted to $1.4 million and $1.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively.

ASRs, net, consisted of the following (in thousands):

    

December 31,

2022

2021

Raw materials

$

2,732

$

1,041

ASRs in progress

 

773

 

427

Finished ASRs

 

10,198

 

7,695

 

13,703

 

9,163

Accumulated depreciation on Finished ASRs

 

(7,853)

 

(6,192)

ASRs, net

$

5,850

$

2,971

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The components of the Finished ASRs, net at December 31, 2022 and 2021 are as follows:

ASRs on lease or available for lease

    

$

9,002

    

$

6,489

Demonstration ASRs

 

622

 

585

Research and development ASRs

 

194

 

320

Charge boxes

 

380

 

301

 

10,198

 

7,695

Less: accumulated depreciation

 

(7,853)

 

(6,192)

Finished ASRs, net

$

2,345

$

1,503

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

The Company assesses the impairment of long-lived assets whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that their carrying value may not be recoverable from the estimated future cash flows expected to result from their use or eventual disposition. If estimates of future undiscounted net cash flows are insufficient to recover the carrying value of the assets, the Company will record an impairment loss in the amount by which the carrying value exceeds the fair value. If the assets are determined to be recoverable, but the useful lives are shorter than originally estimated, the Company will depreciate or amortize the net book value of the assets over the newly determined remaining useful lives. None of the Company’s ASRs or property and equipment was determined to be impaired during the year ended December 31, 2022 and 2021.

Convertible Preferred Warrant Liability and Common Stock Warrants

Freestanding warrants to purchase shares of the Company’s preferred stock are classified as liabilities on the consolidated balance sheets at their estimated fair value because the underlying shares of preferred stock are contingently redeemable and, therefore, may obligate the Company to transfer assets at some point in the future. The preferred stock warrants are recorded at fair value upon issuance and are subject to remeasurement to their respective estimated fair values. At the end of each reporting period, changes in the estimated fair value of the preferred stock warrants are recorded in the consolidated statements of operations. The Company will continue to adjust the liability associated with the preferred stock warrants for changes in the estimated fair value until the earlier of the exercise or expiration of the preferred stock warrants, the completion of a sale of the Company or an underwritten initial public offering (“IPO”). Upon an IPO, the preferred stock warrants will convert into warrants to purchase common stock and any liabilities recorded for the preferred stock warrants will be reclassified to additional paid-in capital and will no longer be subject to remeasurement.

The Company issued common stock warrants in connection with the execution of a certain debt financing during the year ended December 31, 2015. These common stock warrants are not considered derivative liabilities are accounted for at fair value at the date of issuance in additional paid-in capital and were fully exercised in 2022 and none remain outstanding as of December 31, 2022. The fair value of these common stock warrants is determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model.

On October 10, 2022, we issued common stock warrants in connection with the execution of Convertible Notes (“2022 Convertible Notes”). These warrants are recorded as derivative liabilities as it was determined they were not indeed to the Company’s stock and accounted for at fair value upon issuance. The derivative liability will be marked to market each reporting period with changes in fair value recorded in changes in fair value of warrant and derivative liability on the consolidated statements of operations.

Share-Based Compensation

The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification 718, Compensation - Stock Compensation, which requires that the estimated fair value on the date of grant be determined using the Black-Scholes option pricing model with the fair value recognized over the requisite service period of the awards, which is generally the option vesting period. The Company’s determination of the fair value of the stock-based awards on the date of grant, using the Black-Scholes option pricing model, is affected by the fair value of the Company’s common stock as well as other assumptions regarding a number of highly complex and subjective variables. These variables include but are not limited to the Company’s expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, and actual and projected employee option exercise behaviors. Because there is insufficient historical information available to estimate the expected term of the stock-based awards, the Company adopted the simplified method of estimating the expected term of

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options granted by taking the average of the vesting term and the contractual term of the option. The Company recognizes forfeitures as they occur when calculating stock-based compensation for its equity awards.

Results of Operations

The following table sets forth certain historical statements of operations data (in thousands) and such data as a percentage of revenue for the periods indicated.

    

Year ended December 31,

 

2022

    

    

2021

    

 

Revenue, net

Service

$

5,162

92

%

$

3,407

100

%

Product

469

8

%

%

Total revenue, net

5,631

100

%

$

3,407

100

%

Cost of revenue, net

Service

8,804

156

%

5,464

160

%

Product

146

3

%

%

Total cost of revenues

8,950

159

%

5,464

160

%

Gross loss

 

(3,319)

 

(59)

%  

 

(2,057)

 

(60)

%

Operating Expenses

Research and development

 

8,449

 

150

%  

 

5,601

 

164

%

Sales and marketing

 

8,500

 

151

%  

 

12,017

 

353

%

General and administrative

 

11,700

 

208

%  

 

4,880

 

143

%

Total operating expenses

 

28,649

 

509

%  

 

22,498

 

660

%

Loss from operations

 

(31,968)

 

(568)

%  

 

(24,555)

 

(721)

%

Interest expense, net

 

(9,235)

 

(164)

%  

 

(4,333)

 

(127)

%

Change in fair value of warrant and derivative liability

 

20,857

 

370

%  

 

(15,718)

 

(461)

%

Change in fair value of convertible note

(4,650)

(83)

%

Other income (expense), net

 

(647)

 

(11)

%  

 

763

 

22

%

Total other expense, net

 

6,325

 

112

%  

 

(19,288)

 

(566)

%

Loss before income tax expense

 

(25,643)

 

(455)

%  

 

(43,843)

 

(1,287)

%

Income tax expense

 

 

%  

 

 

%

Net loss

$

(25,643)

 

(455)

%  

$

(43,843)

 

(1,287)

%

Revenue, net

Service revenue, net, which includes revenue generated through MaaS agreements for our ASRs and maintenance and support contracts for our Blue Light EPhone Towers and Call Boxes, increased by approximately $1.8 million to $5.2 million, or approximately 53% for the year ended December 31, 2022, from $3.4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was due to the Company’s acquisition of CASE during the fourth quarter of 2022 and ASR renewals and new deployments at a number of new clients in 2022 as the Company was able to conduct business with less disruption from COVID-19 and resulting supply chain issues, which negatively impacted the Company’s service revenue during 2021. Product revenue of approximately $0.5 million from sales of call boxes and blue light security towers represents incremental new revenue to the Company resulting from the CASE Acquisition (see note 3 to the consolidated financial statements in Item 8). The Company had no product revenue in 2021.

Cost of revenue, net

Service cost of revenue, net, representing the cost of supporting ASR MaaS and maintenance and support agreements related to call box and blue light tower installations, for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately $9.0 million, as compared to approximately $5.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, representing an increase of approximately $3.5 million, or approximately 64%. As a percentage of service revenue, service cost of revenue, net increased to 171% from 160%. In addition to the costs attributable to a higher volume of business over the prior year, the increase in service cost of revenue, net was primarily related to personnel costs related to an increase of 16 employees resulting from the CASE Acquisition, resulting in a total of 47 employees providing customer services,

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and increased costs attributed to the production and service of the ASRs, partially due to increased costs resulting from rising inflation. The service cost of revenue, net is primarily related to the depreciation and service costs for ASRs and support and maintenance of the blue light towers and call boxes. Product cost of revenue, net of approximately $0.1 million is related to the costs of call boxes and blue light towers sold pursuant to the CASE Acquisition during the fourth quarter of 2022.

Gross loss

Gross loss for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately $3.3 million, as compared to $2.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, representing an increase of approximately $1.3 million, or 61%.

Research and Development

    

Year Ended

    

    

    

 

December 31,

 

2022

    

2021

$ Change

% Change

 

Research and development

$

8,449

$

5,601

$

2,848

 

51

%

Percentage of total revenue

 

150

%  

 

164

%  

 

  

 

  

Research and development (“R&D”) expense for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately $8.5 million, or 150% of revenue, compared to R&D expense of $5.6 million, or 164% of revenue, for the year ended December 31, 2021. The majority of the increase, $2.6 million, was due to an increase in headcount and personnel related costs associated with the addition of ten new employees, including three as a result of the CASE Acquisition, necessitated by technology development, including but not limited to upgrades to the KSOC platform and existing ASR models, development of all new ASR models like the K1 Hemisphere announced in June 2022 and continued focus on FedRamp.

Sales and marketing

    

Year Ended

    

    

    

 

December 31,

 

2022

    

2021

$ Change

% Change

 

Sales and marketing

$

8,500

$

12,017

$

(3,517)

 

(29)

%

Percentage of total revenue

 

151

%  

 

353

%  

 

  

 

  

Sales and marketing expense for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately $8.5 million, or 151% of revenue, compared to sales and marketing expense of $12.0 million, or 353% of revenue, for the year ended December 31, 2021. The decrease in 2022 was primarily due to a reduction of approximately $4.6 million in spending on commercial advertising, as the Company did not incur the same level of advertising expenses invested during 2021 in connection with multiple Regulation A offerings. The Company also eliminated a significant amount of on-line advertising in 2022, This decrease was partially offset by an increase in headcount costs of approximately $0.6 million resulting from the headcount growth related to the CASE acquisition, including the addition of five CASE employees, and employee bonuses of approximately $0.2 million.

General and administrative

    

Year Ended

    

    

    

 

December 31,

 

2022

    

2021

$ Change

% Change

 

General and administrative

$

11,700

$

4,880

$

6,820

 

140

%

Percentage of total revenue

 

208

%  

 

143

%  

 

  

 

  

General and administrative (“G&A”) expense for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately $11.7 million, or 208% of revenue, compared to G&A expense of $4.9 million, or 143% of revenue, for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily driven by an increase of approximately $3.6 million relating to professional service fees associated with legal, corporate, insurance, investor relations and financial service expenses related to the Company’s public listing on Nasdaq, regulatory filings, and the CASE acquisition, $1.8 million in personnel related costs as a result of an increase in headcount, and an increase in stock-based compensation expense of $1.4 million.

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The following table sets forth total other income (expense), as described above, for the periods indicated:

Year Ended

 

December 31

 

    

2022

    

2021

    

$ Change

    

% Change

 

Interest expense, net

$

(9,235)

$

(4,333)

$

(4,902)

 

(113)

%

Change in fair value of warrant and derivative liability

 

20,857

 

(15,718)

$

36,575

 

233

%

Change in fair value of convertible note

(4,650)

(4,650)

(100)

%

Other income (expense), net

(647)

763

(1,410)

(185)

%

Total other income (expense)

$

6,325

$

(19,288)

$

25,613

133

%

Interest expense, net

Interest expense, net for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately $9.2 million, compared to interest expense net of $4.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase in interest expense, net of $4.9 million resulted from the write off of the remaining debt discount upon the conversion of convertible notes on January 5, 2022 and new note issuances in connection with the CASE acquisition.

Change in fair value of warrant and derivative liability

The change in the fair value of warrant and derivative liability changed by approximately $36.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2022 resulting in other income of $20.9 million compared to an expense of $15.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The change in the fair value of the warrant and derivative liability is attributable to the decrease in the fair value of the preferred stock and common stock warrants that are accounted for as a liability.

Other income (expense), net

Other expense, net for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately $0.6 million, attributable to transaction costs related to the CASE acquisition, as compared to other income, net of $0.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2021 primarily resulting from forgiveness of a PPP loan in May 2021.

Liquidity and Capital Resources

As of December 31, 2022, and 2021, we had $4.8 million and $10.7 million, respectively, of cash and cash equivalents. As of December 31, 2022, the Company also had an accumulated deficit of $139.3 million, negative working capital of $0.4 million and stockholders’ deficit of $43.6 million. On April 20, 2021, the Company entered into a Referral Agreement with Dimension Funding, LLC (“Dimension”), whereby the Company can generate up to $10 million of immediate cash flow by referring its clients to Dimension for financing of their annual fees over the MaaS subscription term. This agreement enables the Company to quickly offset the up-front costs associated with building and deploying ASRs by accelerating collection of its accounts receivable. In 2022, the Company also began working with a second source for order financing for its ASRs to supplement its ability to finance its backlog. Following the Company’s listing on Nasdaq, in April 2022, Knightscope established a $100 million committed equity facility with B. Riley Principal Capital, LLC, enabling the Company to access capital in its discretion, as required, subject to market conditions. After the Class A Common Stock had been listed for a year, the Company filed a registration statement for up to $20 million, having entered into an At the Market Offering agreement on February 1, 2023 with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC. This facility provides the Company with additional access to capital, as needed, subject to market conditions. In addition, as of March 13, 2023, the Company’s cash balance was approximately $3.5 million. The Company has projected operating losses and negative cash flows of approximately $1.5 million per month, on average, for the next several months. These factors raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. There can be no assurance that the Company will be successful in acquiring additional funding at levels sufficient to fund its future operations. If the Company is unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to it, the Company may have to significantly reduce its operations, delay, scale back or discontinue the development of one or more of its platforms or discontinue operations completely. We intend to monitor the stability of the financial institutions in which we keep our liquid funds to mitigate against the exposure to loss of funds and delays in accessing our cash. Occasionally, such reviews and other events result in the movement of funds to more stable institutions such as the movement of our cash deposits out of Silicon Valley Bank to Comerica Bank.

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Cash Flow

The table below, for the periods indicated, provides selected cash flow information:

    

Year ended December 31,

2022

    

2021

(In thousands)

Net cash used in operating activities

$

(24,064)

$

(20,106)

Net cash used in investing activities

 

(9,931)

 

(2,333)

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

27,956

 

26,131

Net (decrease) increase in cash and cash equivalents

$

(6,039)

$

3,692

Net Cash Used in Operating Activities

Net cash used in operating activities is influenced by the amount of cash we invest in personnel, marketing, and infrastructure to support the anticipated growth of our business, the number of clients to whom we lease our ASRs, sell and service blue light ePhone towers and call boxes, the amount and timing of accounts receivable collections, as well as the amount and timing of disbursements to our vendors.

Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 increased by $4.0 million to $24.1 million, compared to $20.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. The increase was primarily due to the reduction in the change in fair value of warrants of $36.6 million, a reduction in interest expense related to warrants for preferred stock of $1.0 million and a decrease in non-cash interest of $0.6 million, partially offset by a decrease in net loss of $18.2 million, an increase in amortization of debt discount of $6.4 million upon the conversion of convertible notes in January 2022, a change in the fair value of convertible notes of $4.7 million, an increase in stock compensation expense of $2.3 million, changes in the operating assets and liabilities, net of $1.4 million, a decrease of $0.8 million of forgiveness of the Paycheck Protection Program loan and interest, and issuance of common stock in exchange for services in 2022 of $0.3 million.

Net Cash Used in Investing Activities

Our primary investing activities have consisted of capital expenditures and investment in ASRs. As our business grows, we expect our capital expenditures to continue to increase. In 2022, we invested $5.4 million, net of cash acquired for the CASE acquisition.

Net cash used in investing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022 was approximately $9.9 million compared to $2.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2021, an increase of $7.6 million. The increase was primarily a result of the CASE acquisition and a $2.2 million increase in the investment in ASRs.

Net Cash Provided by Financing Activities

Net cash provided by financing activities was approximately $28.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2022, an increase of approximately $1.8 million as compared to the prior year. Our financing activities for the year ended December 31, 2022, consisted primarily of net proceeds of approximately $19.6 million resulting from issuing stock in connection with our 2021 Regulation A Offering that terminated on January 26, 2022, immediately prior to the Company’s listing on Nasdaq on January 27, 2022. In addition, the Company received net proceeds from the issuance and sale of shares of Class A Common Stock to B. Riley Principal Capital under the Purchase Agreement of approximately $2.9 million, received net proceeds of $5.0 million from Convertible Notes and Warrants issued in connection with the CASE acquisition (see note 3), and received proceeds from stock option exercises of approximately $0.5 million during the year ended December 31, 2022.

Convertible Promissory Notes and Series S Preferred Stock Warrants, and the Related Conversion of Certain Series m-3 Preferred Stock into Series m-4 Preferred Stock

On April 30, 2019 the Company signed a Note and Warrant Purchase Agreement under the form of which the Company could issue up to $15 million of convertible promissory notes and warrants to purchase up to 3,000,000 shares of Series S Preferred Stock (the “Convertible Note Financing”). Pursuant to the terms of the Convertible Note Financing, the Company became obligated to exchange certain of its outstanding shares of Series m-3 Preferred Stock for the newly authorized shares of Series m-4 Preferred Stock upon the

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closing of at least $1 million in aggregate principal amount of convertible promissory notes under the Convertible Note Financing. On September 10, 2019, the Company issued, to the same group of Convertible Note Financing investors, 1,432,786 shares of its Series m-4 Preferred Stock in exchange for 1,432,786 shares of its shares of Series m-3 Preferred Stock held by such investors. The Series m-4 Preferred Stock has a senior liquidation preference to all other Preferred Stock and Common Stock of the Company, has an accruing payment in kind dividend in the form of Series m-4 Preferred Stock of 12%, and has certain other preferential rights, including voting rights, as further explained in the Company’s amended and restated certificate of incorporation. Exchange of Series m-3 Preferred Stock for Series m-4 Preferred Stock was inclusive of inducement expenses of $0.9 million (see Note 4 – Capital Stock and Warrants to the audited consolidated financial statements for details). Warrants to purchase shares of Series S Preferred Stock of the Company were also issued to investors who invested in the Convertible Note Financing. These warrants to purchase shares of Series S Preferred Stock have an exercise price of $4.50 per share and were initially scheduled to expire on the earlier of December 31, 2021 or 18 months after the closing of the Company’s first firm commitment underwritten initial public offering of the Company’s common stock pursuant to a registration statement filed under the Securities Act. The convertible promissory notes initially had a maturity date of January 1, 2022, and provided for interest at a rate of 12% per annum payable upon the maturity date, and were generally the most senior company security (subject to limited subordination carve-outs) and provided for significant discounts upon a qualified financing or an initial public offering, and for a premium upon a change of control. As of December 31, 2021, the Company had issued convertible notes in the aggregate principal amount of approximately $14.7 million (out of $15 million) under the Convertible Note Financing. Warrants for the purchase of up to 2,941,814 shares of Series S Preferred Stock were also issued and accrued for, respectively, to the same convertible note holders. The warrants have an exercise price of $4.50 per share, and originally scheduled to expire on December 31, 2021.

On November 18, 2021, the Company agreed to amend the Note and Warrant Purchase Agreement for the Convertible Note Financing (see Note 3 – Debt Obligations – Convertible Note Financing) and the convertible notes and warrants to purchase Series S Preferred Stock issued thereunder principally as follows: (i) the scheduled maturity date of the convertible notes was extended from January 1, 2022 to January 1, 2024, (ii) the interest rate of the convertible notes was reduced from 12% per annum to 3% per annum starting on January 1, 2022, (iii) the conversion terms of the convertible notes were revised so that the convertible notes would automatically convert into Class A Common Stock upon the listing of the Company’s Class A Common Stock for trading on a nationally recognized securities exchange (e.g., the New York Stock Exchange) or inter-dealer quotation system (e.g., Nasdaq), (iv) the exercise period of the warrants was extended from December 31, 2021 to December 31, 2024, to commence on January 1, 2023, and (v) the cashless exercise feature was removed from the warrants. The conversion price of the convertible notes for conversion into Class A Common Stock was not changed and remained at $2.50 per share and the exercise price of the warrants to purchase Series S Preferred Stock was not changed and remains at $4.50 per share. In connection with the listing of our Class A Common Stock on the Nasdaq Global Market on January 27, 2022, all of the outstanding convertible notes issued under the Convertible Note Financing converted to Class A Common Stock.

In connection with the placement of the Series m-3 Preferred Stock during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2018, the Company issued to the purchasers warrants to purchase an aggregate of 1,432,786 shares of Series m-3 Preferred Stock. These warrants have an exercise price of $4.00 per share. Pursuant to a second amendment to the Warrants to Purchase Shares of Series M-3 Preferred Stock Agreement dated November 18, 2021, the exercise period of the warrants was extended from December 31, 2021 to December 31, 2024 and shall be exercisable, in whole or in part, beginning January 1, 2023. In addition, the cashless exercise feature was removed from the warrants.

2022 Convertible Notes and Common Stock Warrants

On October 10, 2022, we entered into a securities purchase agreement with an accredited investor (the “Buyer”), pursuant to which we sold and issued to the Buyer in a private placement (i) senior secured convertible notes in an aggregate principal amount of $6.075 million (the “2022 Convertible Notes”), at an initial conversion price of $5.00 per share of Class A Common Stock, subject to adjustment upon the occurrence of specified events described in the 2022 Convertible Notes, and (ii) warrants to purchase up to 1,138,446 shares of Class A Common Stock with an initial exercise price of $3.25 per share of Class A Common Stock, exercisable immediately and expiring five years from the date of issuance (the “2022 Common Stock Warrants” and, together with the 2022 Convertible Notes, the “2022 Convertible Notes Offering”), for $5.0 million of gross proceeds. Digital Offering, LLC, acted as the placement agent for the 2022 Convertible Notes Offering and received a commission of 4.50% of the aggregate principal amount of the 2022 Convertible Notes.

The 2022 Common Stock Warrants are recorded as derivative liabilities as it was determined they are not indexed to the Company’s stock and accounted for at fair value upon issuance. The derivative liability will be marked to market each reporting period with changes in fair value recorded in changes in fair value of warrant and derivative liability on the consolidated statements of operations.

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The 2022 Convertible Notes are senior secured obligations of the Company. The 2022 Convertible Notes were issued with an original issue discount of approximately 17.65%, bear no interest until an event of default has occurred, upon which interest will accrue at 12.5% per annum, and mature on September 15, 2024 unless earlier converted (upon the satisfaction of certain conditions). On December 30, 2022, we and the Buyer entered into an Agreement and Waiver (the “Waiver”). Under the Waiver, we mutually agreed to reduce the minimum cash covenant to $1.5 million and to lower the conversion price in part, such that the conversion price in effect on any given time of determination will equal the Alternate Conversion Price (as defined in 2022 Convertible Notes) then in effect (but with 85% replacing 80% in such definition of Alternate Conversion Price, as applicable).

Common Stock Purchase Agreement with B. Riley

On April 4, 2022, the Company entered into the Purchase Agreement and a Registration Rights Agreement with B. Riley Principal Capital. Pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, the Company has the right to sell to B. Riley Principal Capital, up to the lesser of (i) $100,000,000 of newly issued shares of the Company’s Class A Common Stock and (ii) the Exchange Cap (as defined in the Purchase Agreement) (subject to certain conditions and limitations), from time to time during the term of the Purchase Agreement. Sales of Class A Common Stock pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, and the timing of any sales, are solely at the option of the Company, and the Company is under no obligation to sell any securities to B. Riley Principal Capital under the Purchase Agreement. The per share purchase price for the shares of Class A Common Stock that B. Riley Principal Capital is required to purchase pursuant to the Purchase Agreement, if any, will be determined by reference to the volume weighted average price of the Class A Common Stock calculated in accordance with the Purchase Agreement, and subject to the terms and conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement.

As consideration for B. Riley Principal Capital’s commitment to purchase shares of Class A Common Stock at the Company’s direction upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the Purchase Agreement, upon execution of the Purchase Agreement, the Company issued 98,888 shares of Class A Common Stock to B. Riley Principal Capital as initial commitment shares. In addition, (i) upon the Company’s receipt of total aggregate gross cash proceeds equal to $25,000,000 as payment by B. Riley Principal Capital for all shares of Class A Common Stock purchased under the Purchase Agreement, the Company will issue 59,333 additional shares of Class A Common Stock to B. Riley Principal Capital as additional commitment shares, and (ii) upon the Company’s receipt of total aggregate gross cash proceeds equal to $50,000,000 from B. Riley Principal Capital under the Purchase Agreement, the Company will issue an additional 39,555 shares of Class A Common Stock to B. Riley Principal Capital as additional commitment shares, totaling 98,888 additional commitment shares (in addition to the 98,888 initial commitment shares the Company issued to B. Riley Principal Capital upon execution of the Purchase Agreement). Pursuant to the Registration Rights Agreement, the Company filed a registration statement on Form S-1 to register the resale of 12,197,776 shares of Class A Common Stock by B. Riley Principal Capital, which was declared effective by the SEC on May 11, 2022.

During the three months and full year ended December 31, 2022, we sold 790,030 and 1,209,062 shares of Class A Common Stock, respectively, under the Purchase Agreement. Net proceeds from such sales totaled $1.5 million and $2.9 million, respectively.

At the Market Offering Program

In February 2023, we commenced an At the Market offering program with H.C. Wainwright & Co., LLC, as sales agent, which allows us to sell and issue shares of up to approximately $20 million of our Class A Common Stock from time-to-time. As of March 10, 2023, we issued 2,145,387 shares of Class A Common Stock under the At The Market offering program for total proceeds of $2.4 million, net of commissions and other offering related expenses.

Promissory Note

On October 14, 2022 we issued an unsecured, non-negotiable promissory note for $560,000 in connection with the CASE Acquisition (see note 3 to the Consolidated Financial Statements).The note bears simple interest at the applicable federal rate per annum, will mature in April, 2023, with principal and accrued interest to be paid on the maturity date, and is subordinated to all senior indebtedness of the Company to the extent required by the holders thereof.

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

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We are a smaller reporting company as defined by Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act and are not required to provide information under this item.

Item 8. Consolidated Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

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KNIGHTSCOPE, INC.

INDEX TO CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    

Page

Reports of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm (PCAOB ID: 207)

F-2

Consolidated Balance Sheets as of December 31, 2022 and 2021

F-3

Consolidated Statements of Operations for the Fiscal Years Ended December 31, 2022 and 2021

F-4

Consolidated Statements of Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Deficit for the Fiscal Years Ended December 31, 2022 and 2021

F-5

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the Fiscal Years Ended December 31, 2022 and 2021

F-6

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

F-7

F-1

Table of Contents

REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM

To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of

Knightscope, Inc.

Opinion on the Consolidated Financial Statements

We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of Knightscope, Inc.  (a Delaware corporation) and its subsidiary (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the related consolidated statements of operations, preferred stock and stockholders’ deficit, and cash flows for each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2022, and the related notes (collectively referred to as the “consolidated financial statements”). In our opinion, the consolidated financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for the each of the two years in the period ended December 31, 2022, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.

Substantial Doubt about the Company's Ability to Continue as a Going Concern

The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared assuming that the Company will continue as a going concern. As discussed in Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements, the Company’s recurring losses from operations, available cash and cash used in operations raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. Management's evaluation of the events and conditions and management’s plans regarding these matters are also described in Note 1. The consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments that might result from the outcome of this uncertainty.

Basis for Opinion

These consolidated financial statements are the responsibility of the Company’s management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s consolidated financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”) and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.

We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the consolidated financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. The Company is not required to have, nor were we engaged to perform, an audit of its internal control over financial reporting. As part of our audits, we are required to obtain an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, but not for the purpose of expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. Accordingly, we express no such opinion.

Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the consolidated financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the consolidated financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the consolidated financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.

/s/ BPM LLP

We have served as the Company’s auditor since 2020.

San Jose, California

March 31, 2023

F-2

Table of Contents

KNIGHTSCOPE, INC.

CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

December 31, 

    

2022

    

2021

ASSETS

Current assets:

    

  

    

  

Cash and cash equivalents

$

4,810

$

10,749

Restricted cash

 

 

100

Accounts receivable (net of allowance for doubtful accounts of $229 and $250 as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively)

 

1,370

 

1,189

Inventory

2,560

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

1,349

 

1,299

Total current assets

 

10,089

 

13,337

Autonomous Security Robots, net

 

5,850

 

2,971

Property, equipment and software, net

 

614

 

117

Operating lease right-of-use-assets

 

2,012

 

1,077

Goodwill

1,344

Intangible assets, net

2,056

Other assets

 

117

 

78

Total assets

$

22,082

$

17,580

LIABILITIES, PREFERRED STOCK AND STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT

 

  

 

  

Current liabilities:

 

  

 

  

Accounts payable

$

2,457

$

1,514

Accrued expenses

 

2,403

 

1,191

Deferred revenue

 

1,711

 

889

Debt obligations

 

2,144

 

7,109

Operating lease liabilities, current

 

731

 

648

Other current liabilities

 

1,063

 

893

Total current liabilities

 

10,509

 

12,244

Debt obligations

 

6,554

 

Preferred stock warrant liability

 

10,011

 

30,566

Derivative liability

1,146

Other noncurrent liabilities

356

Operating lease liabilities, noncurrent

 

1,309

 

485

Total liabilities

 

29,885

 

43,295

Commitments and contingencies (Note 11)

 

  

 

  

Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value; 43,405,324 shares authorized as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, 11,351,841 and 19,617,107 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively; aggregate liquidation preference of $37,733 and $60,841 as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively

 

35,783

 

57,218

Stockholders’ deficit:

 

  

 

  

Class A Common Stock, $0.001 par, 114,000,000 shares authorized as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, 28,029,238 and 5,936,929 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively

 

28

 

6

Class B Common Stock, $0.001 par, 30,000,000 shares authorized as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, 10,319,884 and 13,131,197 shares issued and outstanding as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, respectively

 

10

 

13

Additional paid-in capital

 

95,716

 

30,745

Accumulated deficit

 

(139,340)

 

(113,697)

Total stockholders’ deficit

 

(43,586)

 

(82,933)

Total liabilities, preferred stock and stockholders’ deficit

$

22,082

$

17,580

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

F-3

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KNIGHTSCOPE, INC.

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

Year ended December 31, 

2022

2021

Revenue, net

Service

$

5,162

$

3,407

Product

469

Total revenues

5,631

3,407

Cost of revenue, net

    

 

Service

8,804

5,464

Product

146

Total cost of revenues, net

8,950

5,464

Gross loss

(3,319)

(2,057)

Operating expenses:

 

  

 

  

Research and development

 

8,449

 

5,601

Sales and marketing

 

8,500

 

12,017

General and administrative

 

11,700

 

4,880

Total operating expenses

 

28,649

 

22,498

Loss from operations

 

(31,968)

 

(24,555)

Other income (expense):

 

 

Interest expense, net

 

(9,235)

 

(4,333)

Change in fair value of warrant and derivative liability

 

20,857

 

(15,718)

Change in fair value of convertible note

(4,650)

Other income (expense), net

 

(647)

 

763

Total other income (expense)

 

6,325

 

(19,288)

Loss before income tax expense

 

(25,643)

 

(43,843)

Income tax expense

 

 

Net loss

 

(25,643)

 

(43,843)

Preferred stock dividends

 

 

(608)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

$

(25,643)

$

(44,451)

Basic and diluted net loss per share of Class A and Class B Common Stock

$

(0.72)

$

(4.18)

Weighted average shares used to compute basic and diluted net loss per share

 

35,551,120

 

10,631,774

See accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.

F-4

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KNIGHTSCOPE, INC.

STATEMENTS OF PREFERRED STOCK AND STOCKHOLDERS’ DEFICIT

(In thousands except share data)

Series m

Series m-1

Series m-2

Series m-4

Series A

Series B

Class A

Class B

Preferred

Preferred

Preferred

Series m-3

Preferred

Series S

Preferred

Preferred

Common

Common

Total

Stock

Stock

Stock

Preferred Stock

Stock

Preferred Stock

Stock

Stock

Stock

Stock

Additional

Accumulative

Stockholders’

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Shares

    

Amount

    

Paid-in-capital

    

Deficit

    

Deficit

Balance as of January 1, 2021

5,339,215

$

13,866

$

1,660,756

$

4,982

16,757

$

46

1,432,786

$

5,826

3,731,248

$

27,135

8,936,015

$

3,865

4,653,583

$

9,442

$

10,189,000

$

10

3,051

$

(69,246)

$

(66,185)

Stock based compensation

 

 

  

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

1,269

1,269

Warrants expired

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

 

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

  

 

14

14